Author: Md Muzammel Haque
Editor: Mikko Nikunen
Biogas in Poland
Description of the product or technology:
Microbial decomposition of organic matter in the absence of air resulting in a gas called biogas. Biogas mainly contain methane and carbon di-oxide. Depend on biomass resources in on its origin biogas comprises methane (40-75%), carbon dioxide (20-45%) and some other compounds. (i.e. only landfill as contain around 5-25% of nitrogen). Only agricultural waste can produce 1.7 billions m3 of bio gas per year in Poland ,that is one third of total potential. There are main biomass resources is landfill, sewage, livestock manure, residues from fruit and vegetables, beet pulp, cornsillage, agricultural residues and industrial wastes from which bio-gas can be derived. Biogas is also known as anaerobic digestion.Poland, has already developed a bio-gas based power plants, number of biogas plants is increasing every year. Now a days total installed electric capacity about 231 MW and working 301 Biogas plants in Poland.In Poland has only one kind of Biogas power plants, biogas from landfill, biogas from wastewater treatment plants and production of agricultural biogas. 101 landfill them biogas plants(64MW), sewage biogas plants (65 MW) and left 95 agricultural biogas plants(103MW). The primary application of biogas is electricity for on site use or sale to grid, generated by different technologies. Including- internal combustion engines, gas turbines, microturbines, sterling engines. The full procedure of the power plants of landfill gas energy is shown in figure-2.
Figure-1: Method of Landfill gas, source INiG
Description of the market:
Biomass in Poland is a widely available, renewable fuel has large potential for development. In Poland Renewable technologies in the whole energy production is around 12%. Total production of Biogas is equals 279 MWel –include all types of biogas: biogas from landfill, biogas from wastewater treatment plants and production of agricultural biogas. The huge biogas potential only 76 agricultural biogas plants are registered in Poland. Number of biogas plants commenced and volume of produced biogas increase every year. Doubling of biogas plants since the previous year but growth is very slow . Polish biogas plants are mainly operating in CHP mode, burning produced biogas and generating electricity and heat. The amount of produced heat and biogas in the recent years by biogas plants. Most of the Biogas Plants on the Polish market are of the size of 1 MWe or bigger,26 of the plants are below the level of 1 MWe, and their size vary – starting from small plants of 100 kWe.
Figure-2: bio-gas plants in Poland.1-landfills; 2-wastewater treatment plants; 3-other sources (agricultural)..
Figure 3. Green points indicate working biogas plants and yellow ones indicate plants under construction in 2012 (AGH University of Science and Technology 2013)
Description of the policy measures:
Biogas as an important solution energy security in Poland. The target of bio-energy in Poland to reach the domestic target for RES energy - in 2020, Polish biogas plants should grow up to 980 MW according to the National Action Plan concerning energy from renewable sources. that means in 2020 total biogas plant will be 700-800. The policy makers start to look at biogas as an important solution country’s energy security and great opportunity for development of agricultural regions. According to proposed new RES, the term energy clusters is going to be based on the public-private partnership between i.e. municipalities, companies and universities. The energy clusters are divided into micro-clusters – up to 10.000 households and macro-energy clusters – up to20.000 households. Self-energy-sufficiency should be obtained with combination of different renewable energy sources, such as biomass, biogas, wind and solar energy.
Despite the development of biogas sector in Poland, there are still some barriers to confront, one of these is that there hasn’t been clear energy policy before now. Legislation does not guarantee that new biogas plant can be connected to existing electric- or gas network, and therefore it is quite high risk for small or medium size entrepreneur to establish new plant. (Biogas action 2016). It was also mentioned that the support of state has been quite poor (Daniela Szymanska and Aleksandra Lewandowska 2015), however 2018 Poland received new RES support package from EU. This is supposed to use development of new biogas plants and increase total production. (Randy M. Mott JD. 2017)
Evaluation of the effect of this measures:
In my view of this policy, the policies are most probably successful. Development of renewable energy in Poland, similarly to other EU member-states. The economic, environmental, energy policy-related and technological opportunities for the development of bioenergy in Poland. The benefit also climate and ecological biodiversity. Goals for the development of renewable energy sources in Poland encompass increasing of share of renewable energy in total energy use by no less than 15%, and increasing of biofuel share in the transportation fuels market by 10% in 2020. The consumption of biogas is increased over the years as heat, electricity and in transportation
- Dudek, J.; Klimek, P. Experience connected with energy usage of landfill gas. Polityka Energ. 2008,
Ciupryk, M.; Gaj, K. Possibilities and benefits of landfill biogas utilization. Ochr. Powietrza i Probl. Odpad. 2004,
- Szymanska, D.; Lewandowska, A. Biogas Power Plants in Poland—Structure, Capacity, and Spatial Distribution. Sustainability. 2015