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This page include recommended readings for students in different parts of the studies. It is highly recommended, for instance, that IMPDET-LE students purchase the at least some of the books listed in the page.


  1. A Letter to Research Students - Practical tips for conducting research by Duane A. Bailey, Williams College
  2. Getting Started in Computer Science Education Research - resources for developing research knowledge by Mike Joy et al.
  3. Getting Started in Instructional Technology Research by Steven M. Ross and Gary R. Morrison
  4. Repository of Resources about Research Methods in Computer Science - collection of articles, websites, videos and other resources related to research methods in Computer Science

Educational technology

  1. List of Seminal Papers in Educational Psychology - by Paul A. Kirschner
  2. Essential readings in educational technology - list of books maintained by EduTech wiki
  3. Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology - Edited by J. Michael Spector, M. David Merrill, Jan Elen, M.J. Bishop
  4. Foundations of Educational Technology: Integrative Approaches and Interdisciplinary Perspectives - J.M. Spector
  5. Teaching in a Digital Age: Guidelines for Designing Teaching and Learning - A.W. Bates
  6. Emerge and Innovation in Digital Learning: Foundations and Applications - G. Veletsianos (Open access ebook)
  7. The Theory and Practices of Online Learning - T. Anderson (Open access ebook)
  8. Teaching in Blended Learning Environments: Creating and Sustaining Communities of Inquiry - N.D. Vaughan, M. Cleveland-Innes, D.R. Garrison (Open access ebook)
  9. Designing and Adaptive and Personalized Learning Environments - Kinshuk

Design in educational technology & Design based research

  1. Design-based research methods: Links and resources by Prof. Jan Herrington
  2.  Design science research literature - collection of articles related to design science research
  3. Luckin R. et al. (2014) Handbook of Design in Educational Technology. Routledge.
  4. Kujala, S. (2003). User involvement: A review of the benefits and challenges. Behaviour & Information Technology, 22(1), 1-16. DOI:10.1080/01449290301782
  5. Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (3rd. Edition) - R.A. Reiser & Dempsey, J.V.

Searching, reading and reviewing articles

  1. How to Read a Scientific Paper - University of Arizona
  2. Guidelines for performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering - EBSE Technical report
  3. Analysing the past to prepare for the future: Writing a literature review - Article by about literature review in the field of Information Systems.

Scientific writing

Recommended book for all doctoral students on how to write scientific articles.

  1. Scientific Writing: The Reader's and Writer's Guide - by Jean-Luc Lebrun 

Conducting research: methods and procedures

The following books should provide you the basic knowledge about the various research approaches and methods that can be applied in your research. Please note, however, that some of the resources mentioned below are not directly written from educational technology perspective, but they originate from other fields, such as education or social science

Generic guide books

  1. Research Methods Knowledge Base (in Social Sciences)
  2. Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Approaches - by John W. Creswell
  3. Introduction to Research Methods: A Practical Guide for Anyone Undertaking a Research Project - by Catherine Dawson
  4. Multidisciplinary Methods in Educational Technology Research and Development - by Justus Randolph
  5. Real World Research - by Colin Robson
  6. Researching Information Systems and Computing - by Oates

Quantitative research

  1. Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology and Education - by Thorndike & Thorndike-Christ 
  2. The Survey Handbook - by Fink
  3. Interpreting Quantitative Data - by Byrne
  4. Statistics Explained: A Guide for Social Science Students - by Hinton


Qualitative research

  1. Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology - by Jerry W. Willis
  2. Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation - by Sharan B. Merriam
  3. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook - by Matthew B. Miles, Michael A. Huberman, Johnny M. Saldana
  4. Using qualitative research methods in higher education - by Savenye, W.C. & Robinson, R.S., Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 2, 65-95.
  5. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches - by John W. Creswell
  6. The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research - by Denzin and Lincoln'
  7. README FIRST for a User's Guide to Qualitative Methods - by Richards & Morse

Design science research/design and development research

  1. Educational Design Research - by Jan Van Den Akker et. al.
  2. Design and Development Research - by Richey, R.C., Klein, J.D.
  3. Conducting Educational Design Research - by McKenney, S., & Reeves, T.C.
  4. Design Science Research Methods and Patterns: Innovating Information and Communication Technology - by Vaishnavi, V.K., Kuechler, W., Kuechler Jnr. W.
  5. Design Science Research in Information Systems - Theory and Practice - Hevner, A.
  6. Design Research: Methods and Perspectives - by Laurel, B., & Lunenfield, P.
  7. Design Research Through Practice: From the Lab, Field and Showroom - by Koskinen I., Zimmerman, J., Binder, T., Redstrom, J., & Wensween, S.
  8. Design and Development Research - Methods, Strategies, and Issues - by Richey, R. C., & Klein, J.
  9. An Introduction to Design Science - by Johannesson, P. & Perjons, E.

Case studies

  1. Case Study Research: Design and Methods - by Robert Yin
  2. Quick Guide: Case Study Research - by Dan Remenyi
  3. Darke, Shanks & Broadbent (1998). Successfully Completing Case Study Research: Combining Rigour, Relevance and PragmatismInformation Systems Journal 8, 273-289 .

Content analysis

  1. The Content Analysis Guidebook - by Neuendorf

University of Eastern Finland library has full text access to books in EBSCO e-book and Sage Research Methods Online Service. The following e-books should be available at least inside the university network.

Examples of literature review articles

As part of your PhD studies, you are usually required to complete a systematic literature review related to the topic of your PhD studies.

  1. Collection of literature reviews and surveys in educational technology
  2. Special issue "Review Articles in Educational Technology" published at Educational Technology & Society

You can use this papers to (1) learn about the recent research and development trends in education technology, (2) learn how to perform literature reviews. Also the existing literature reviews can be used to focus your own work or you can use them as a starting point for your own work.

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