Versions Compared


  • This line was added.
  • This line was removed.
  • Formatting was changed.



An important part odoctoral of doctoral studies in the IMPDET-LE programme is to write and publish research articles related to the PhD Ph.D. research topic. The articles published during the doctorl doctoral studies will, in most cases, eventually form the core content of the docotoral doctoral dissertation. Here In this page, we have collected a checklist of important aspects that needs need to be taken into consideration when writing the research articles.

It is strongly encouraged that you will go through the checklist before submitting the research article or even before giving a draft of the article to your supervisor for reading/commenting. Please note that individual supervisors might have their own preferences and requirements for the structure.

Kindly also note that this is just one example of the possible structure. For example, some publication forums might have specific requirements for the structure of the article or specific type of research articles (for example, technical papers, theoretical work, literature review) might have a different structure.


  • Should shortly describe objectives, research method (design & approach), results and conclusion.
  • The main outcomes/novelty of results should be explained clearly and precisely
  • Please note:
    • Do not repeat the introduction part
    • Abstract The abstract should not be a table of content


  • Write a clear answer already in the very first paragraph paragraphs to the following question; what has been done in this study/piece of research?
  • The introduction should also include:
    • Discuss Discussion about the importance of the research problem that will be addresses
    • Elaborate Elaboration what is the relevance of your the study work; state what is lacking in the current knowledge or provide other justification
    • Identify the main audience for the workresearch article
    • State the objectives or research questions of the study
    • Stress the novelty aspect of the studyarticle; what is are the new perspectiveperspectives, results or contribution of the article to the current scientific knowledge or practice

Background/Literature/Related work

  • Define explicitly clearly the key terms and concepts used in the articleSystematic presentation of literature (previous research on the topic. Remember to use the terms and concepts consistently later in the article.
  • Discusses/Introduces relevant earlier scientific work, and research findings related to the study (both champions and most recent findings)
    • Purpose: to demonstrate the familiarity with the research fieldintegrate and summarise what is known about the research topic, to establish credibility, to show a path to the prior research and reflect how a current project the study is linked to itearlier research efforts, to identify justify the purpose of the research
    • Functions: to reflectively build upon the work concluded by other researchers, to integrate and summarise what is known in a research area, to learn from others and stimulate new ideas
    • study
  • NOTE: The role, as well as the breadth and length of the background/literature/related work section, might differ depending on the publication forum.Theoretical framework - the entrance point to , and the type of the research article. In some cases, it might be enough to write an extensive background related to the study/research topic, while other forums might require a systematic review of literature, even establishement of a theoretical framework to guide the study
  • Re-use figures from literature sparingly, only if you need to use the figures as source materials to support your own analysis

Research design and methods

  • Describe the context, research setting, and study participants
  • Introduce the research design
  • Describe the data collection methods
  • Provide an outline of the data analysis
  • Elaborate Discuss ethical aspects of the study


  • Present the demographic data of the participants
  • Present the results of the study in relation , preferably clearly referring to the research questions
  • Use figures, graphs and tables in a way that they support or extends the body text, but not repeat it

Discussion & Conclusion

  • State the main findings of the study
  • Discuss the findings of the study with reference to previous studies introduced in the Background/Literature/Related work section
  • Elaborate possible practical implications of the study; For , for example, guidelines, good practices, recommendations for practitioners, etc.
  • Discuss possible weaknesses of the study, as well as measures taken to consider validity, reliability, generalizability, trustworthiness, and other applicable research quality metrics
  • Future work


1) Make sure that the references are correctly and consisently formulated both in the body text and the in the reference list. Please remember to check from the publication forum instructions what reference style should be used.


3) Check that all figures and tables have headings. Also, check that each figure and table should be is referred to in the body text.

4) Check the word/page limits for the article, and most importantly respect the limits. Shorten the article if needed. Do not send an article that is too long.

List of resources to support the writing process