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Title: Community Based Climate Change Adaptation:  Efforts and Lessons from Nepal

Abstract: Climate change is recognized as one of the most serious challenge for people, the environment and its economies. Developing countries like Nepal are more susceptible to the climate change and its impacts due to their limited capacity to cope with hazards associated with the changes in climate. Adaptation to climate change includes all adjustments in behavior or economic structure that reduce the vulnerability of society to changes in the climate system. Community-based adaptation (CBA) focuses on empowering communities to use their own knowledge and decision-making processes to tackle climate change. Government of Nepal is taking the lead in identifying and devising appropriate mechanisms and frameworks to address issues and operationalizing adaptation policies and programs, with innovative work focused around piloting local and community-based adaptation activities.  Local among the major environmental threats that Nepal is facing in this century. Forest and water resources, biodiversity and agriculture are the major sectors where climate change has a higher degree of impact. The adverse effects of climatic factors on these sectors directly affects the livelihood of rural and forest-dependent communities. Government institutions in collaboration with non-governmental actors and civil society are working together to identify and devise the appropriate policies, programs and actions to address the negative results of climate change focusing on local and community-based adaptation approaches and activities. Community-based climate change adaptation (CBA) is an approach to empower the local communities to cope with the negative responses of climate change by formulating and implementing the adaptation plan in a participatory approach. Some community-level adaptation interventions and initiatives in the form of local adaptation plans are being implemented by rural and smallholder farmers with the support of external agencies. Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA) is an a community-based climate change adaptation plan prepared in multi-stakeholder, participatory, and bottom-up approach approaches at the Rural Municipality/Municipality level aimed at reducing the vulnerabilities of local communities from climate change. This study aims to gather was focused on gathering efforts and lessons learned from different initiatives of community-based climate change adaptation interventions in Nepal focusing on processes, activities and outcomes of LAPA preparation and implementation. This lesson paper has been prepared based on review. The methodologies used in preparing this paper were field level review and reflections, consultations and author experiences and field work during project implementation at the local level. Besides, lessons have  also been These lessons and experiences documented were also validated through multi-stakeholder consultation workshops at local and district level The district and regional levels.  The observation, documentation, and analysis of LAPA preparation and implementation processes revealed that the participatory bottom-up approach is adopted for LAPA preparation and implementation. The adaptation activities planned and implemented are more realistic in terms of the approaches adopted and the possible benefits to the communities to minimize the negative effects of climate change effects.  There There has been the active meaningful participation of government line agencies, local stakeholders, ethnic and indigenous groups and the community members in the whole process of LAPA preparation and implementation which has also been instrumental in its sustainability. Moreover, illustrating a number of many lessons learned, this paper argues for reflects that community-based climate change adaptation (LAPACBA) approach interventions are the effective and sustainable means to tackle adverse impacts and risks of climate change at the local level. 

Key Words : Adaptation, Climate Change, Community, LAPA, Vulnerability